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Open Port Scanning and OS Detection with Nmap in Kali Linux

This tutorial assumes you are working in a Kali Linux environment.

Usage: nmap [Scan Type(s)] [Options] {target specification}

TARGET SPECIFICATION:
Can pass hostnames, IP addresses, networks, etc.
Ex: scanme.nmap.org, microsoft.com/24, 192.168.0.1; 10.0.0-255.1-254
-iL : Input from list of hosts/networks
–exclude : Exclude hosts/networks
–excludefile : Exclude list from file

OS DETECTION:
-O: Enable OS detection
–osscan-limit: Limit OS detection to promising targets
–osscan-guess: Guess OS more aggressively

PORT SPECIFICATION AND SCAN ORDER:
-p : Only scan specified ports
Ex: -p22; -p1-65535; -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080,S:9
-F: Fast mode – Scan fewer ports than the default scan
-r: Scan ports consecutively – don’t randomize
–top-ports : Scan most common ports
–port-ratio : Scan ports more common than

SERVICE/VERSION DETECTION:
-sV: Probe open ports to determine service/version info
–version-intensity : Set from 0 (light) to 9 (try all probes)
–version-light: Limit to most likely probes (intensity 2)
–version-all: Try every single probe (intensity 9)
–version-trace: Show detailed version scan activity (for debugging)

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